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3 ElDfl 0M7E7 514b 


Cultural Resources Management 

A National Park Service 
Technical Bulletin 

Vol.5, Nos. 1-3 Sept. ,82 

Rome Center Experts Direct Tumacacori Project 

Douglas L. Caldwell 

Preservation work undertaken at Tuma- 
cacori National Monument, Arizona, 
this past summer is the first treat- 
ment project in the United States 
involving personnel from the Interna- 
tional Center for the Preservation 
and Restoration of Cultural Properties 
in Rome (ICCROM). ICCROM's involve- 
ment was requested by the NPS Director 
for assistance in resolving paint and 
plaster conservation problems at 

The three ICCROM participants have 
directed conservation projects though- 
out the world and are recognized in- 
ternationally for their knowledge and 
skills as mural conservators and re- 
storers. The three, Paul Schwartzbaum, 
Carlo Giantomassi, and Donatella Zari, 
provided direction for this phase of 
an overall preservation plan that was 
under the supervision of Denver Ser- 
vice Center historical architect 
Anthony Crosby*. In association with 

cont. page 2 

*Anthony Crosby is the point of con- 
tact for those readers desiring 
further details on the Tumacacori 
project . 

The mission church of San Jose de Tumacacori . The massive bell 
tower was never completed by the Franciscans . Much of the 
recent conservation work centered in the dome area. 

National Catalog Steering Committee Established 

Ann Hitchcock 

The National Catalog Steering Commit- 
tee met October 19-21, 1982, at Grand 
Canyon National Park for its first 
work session. The Committee was es- 
tablished by the Director as a field 
advisory group to the Chief Curator 
in matters pertaining to the National 
Catalog. The Committee is an ongoing 
organization, and its members serve 
two-year terms. John Milley, Chief, 
Museum Operations, Independence 
National Historical Park, is chair- 

man. Other members, selected to rep- 
resent various disciplines and areas 
of interest and expertise, are: 

Allen Bohnert, Curator, Mesa Verde 
National Park; 

Kent Bush, Regional Curator, Pacific 
Northwest Region; 

John Clonts, Chief, Division of 
Anthropological and Library 
Collections, Western Archeolo- 
gical and Conservation Center; 

David Nathanson, Chief, Branch of 

Library and Archival Services, 

Harpers Ferry Center; 
Diane Nicholson, Registrar, 

Golden Gate National Recreation 

Area; and 
Peter White, Research Botanist, 

Great Smoky Mountains National 


cont. page 



the project, participating Park Ser- 
vice personnel were instructed in 
some of the latest "state of the art" 
techniques and in mural painting con- 
servation philosophy. The instruc- 
tional aspect of the project was ar- 
ranged as specific training assign- 
ments by the Denver Service Center 
(DSC) training office. Service em- 
ployees participating in the project 
were: Allen Bohnert, curator, Mesa 
Verde NP; Greg Byrn, conservator, 
Harpers Ferry Center (HFC); Anthony 
Crosby, project historical architect, 
DSC; Carole Perrault, architectural 
conservator, North Atlantic Historic 
Preservation Center; Toby Raphael, 
conservator, HFC; Elizabeth Santos, 
historical architect, DSC; and 
Brigid Sullivan, conservation tech- 
nician, Western Archeological and 
Conservation Center, Tucson, Arizona. 

The recent project, representing the 
final phase of an extensive preserva- 
tion program begun in 1975, was orga- 
nized to preserve historic plaster 
and paintings on the interior of the 
sanctuary dome and walls. Over the 
years, moisture transported soluble 
salts to the surface of the plaster, 
where they crystallized and forced 
the decorative paintings away from 
the walls. These recrystallized salts 
also damaged much of the plaster as 
well. In addition, the salts drew, 
through hygropscopic action, more 
moisture to these already deteriorated 
areas of plaster and paint. The source 
of the problem, moisture penetrating 
from the exterior of the dome and not 
by capillary action from the founda- 
tion up through the walls, was elimi- 
nated (see the schematic drawing); 
but the results, flaking paint and 
gypsum wash, and stained, friable, 
missing and poorly attached plaster, 
remained to be corrected. 

Gypsum Wash Reattachment 

A long fiber Japanese tissue and 
water were used to reattach the wash. 
The tissue was used primarily to pro- 
tect the gypsum during subsequent 
conservation work. It also served as 
a vehicle for transporting moisture, 
applied with a soft, natural bristled 
brush to the wash. Water had to be 
applied only at a rate that the wash 
could easily absorb. If it were ap- 
plied too quickly, the water would 
displace the fragile wash. As the 
wash absorbed the water, it became 
pliable, and a light brushing on the 
protective tissue pressed the wash 
back in place on the plaster. Addi- 
tional pressure was then consistently 
and carefully applied to secure the 
wash back onto the wall. An hour 
after application, the tissue was 

Sketch section of Sanctuary looking north. 
Shown is the relationship of deterioration in the 
dome and use of earth fill in the original 

See explanation for diagram on page 4, 

removed. The gypsum wash remained in 
direct contact with the plaster, and 
the efflorescence was no longer visi- 
bly present. Some of a yellow wetted 
area, and some of the stain was re- 
moved with the tissue. Salts did not 
reform on the surface as may have been 
anticipated, and the wash remained in- 
tact and in place. 

Some areas had been treated in 1949 
with PVA (polyvinyl acetate). It was 
found on the surface of the final gyp- 
sum wash in some areas, or on under- 
lying layers in others, and hanging 
net-like from the plaster surface in 
still others. Also treated were areas 
of heavy efflorescence, areas where 
the gypsum wash had not become de- 
tached, and areas where the ground 
plaster had eroded beneath the wash, 
leaving the wash free standing and 
insecure. As with the non-PVA treated 
areas, the efflorescing salts went 
into solution when water was applied 
to the tissue. Most of the gypsum 

wash became pliable and was easily 
reattached to the plaster. In areas 
where no gypsum plaster existed and 
where the plaster was friable, some 
grains of sand and small plaster 
fragments were also removed with the 

Surface Cleaning 

Both wet and dry methods of cleaning 
were used to remove surface dirt, 
smoke, mud, and what appeared to be 
oils and dung from bats. 

The wet method involved using Japa- 
nese tissue applied with water, fol- 
lowed by a paper pulp poultice of 
ammonium carbonate solution. The tis- 
sue and poultices were removed after 
approximately 50 minutes. In some 
cases, a saturated solution of ammo- 
nium carbonate was immediately brushed 
onto the area in a circular motion to 
loosen all dirt. Water moistened 
cotton balls were then used to gently 

blot away the surface stain or de- 
posit. Blotting continued until no 
stain was detectable on the cotton. 
A shorter time of 15 minutes for 
leaving the poultice on the surface 
was also tested, but it was found 
that too much blotting with the cot- 
ton balls was required and that the 
resultant abrasion posed a threat to 
the surface. 

Applications to surfaces other than 
those covered by a gypsum wash were 
attempted, primarily areas that had 
been painted with an aqeuous solution 
of mineral pigments. Since some of 
the pigmentation was removed along 
with the dirt, however, this method 
of cleaning was halted. Dry cleaning 
with a soft bristled brush, while not 
as effective as the wet applications, 
was then reserved for cleaning the 
painted areas. 

Surface Consolidation 

Three surface consolidation techniques 
were tested. They were: 1) the use of 
ammonium carbonate and barium hydroxide 
2) the use of barium hydroxide alone; 
and 3) the use of Acryloid B-72, an 
ethyl methacrylate-methyl acrylate co- 

A Japanese tissue was first applied to 
the surface followed by a paper pulp 
poultice saturated with the ammonium 
carbonate and barium hydroxide. This 
was left in place for six hours. 

In this treatment, developed in 1967 
by Italian chemist Enzo Ferroni, the 
ammonium carbonate combines with the 
gypsum (calcium sulfate) to form cal- 
cium carbonate and ammonium sulfate, 
a highly soluble salt. When the 
barium hydroxide is added, barium 
sulfate (a very stable compound) is 
formed. After six hours, the barium 
hydroxide pulp was removed along with 
the tissue. 

The treatment using barium hydroxide 
alone was conducted exactly as was the 
second step of the treatment using 
ammonium carbonate and barium hydrox- 
ide described above. The barium hy- 
droxide pulp and tissue were also 
removed after six hours. Again, 
there was a very limited amount of 

The Acryloid B-72 treatment used a 
solution of approximately 4 percent 
solids in a good grade tuolene and 
xylene solvent. The B-72 was applied 
in two thin coats, one immediately 
after the other, directly onto the 
surface. Evaluation of the treatment 
indicated the B-72 solution was more 
effective in consolidating the surface 
than either of the previous two treat- 
ments. However, the total surface 
area consolidated was only about .2 
square meters. 

Reconstruction of Plaster Edges 

Acryloid B-72 (an acrylic resin solu- 
tion), Rhoplex AC-33 (an acrylic resin 
emulsion), a polyvinyl acetate emul- 
sion, and unstablized lime plaster 
were all used in the rebuilding of 
decayed edges and in reattaching de- 
tached paint at those edges. The 
first step required providing support 
to the loose and friable wash before 
any further work was undertaken. This 
was done by facing the insecure areas 
with Japanese tissue applied with a 
10 percent solution of B-72. By so 
doing, the danger of losing additional 
wash while working on the edge was 

Next was the reconstruction of missing 
plaster ground. First, the loose and 
crumbling plaster was removed to a 
depth of up to 2 centimeters. The spe- 
cific technique involved blowing away 
the extremely loose material with a 
blow tube or aspirator, followed by a 
light brushing with a soft bristled 
brush. In some cases, a 2 to 5 per- 
cent solution of AC-33 was used to 
further stabilize the edges where 
necessary. Field tests were conducted 
to determine the penetration and the 
effects on the moisture transmission 
qualitites of this treatment. They 
were found to be negligible. A fat 
lime paste (calcium hydroxide that 
had been slaked on-site for approxi- 
mately two years) was combined with a 
fine sand at a lime-sand ratio of 
approximately 1:4, by volume. Edges, 

built up only where necessary to sup- 
port the loose wash, were beveled 
down to the surface of the original 
plaster at an angle of approximately 
60 degrees. In some instances, it was 
necessary to reconstruct the plaster 
to a depth of less than a centimeter. 
In other cases, if the reconstruction 
were thicker than 1.5 centimeters, 
two or more layers of plaster were 

The new plaster was allowed to set 
for about 24 hours. The tissue-faced 
gypsum wash was then placed on the 
new surface and reattached to it with 
the polyvinyl acetate emulsion. The 
tissue, attached with B-72, was re- 
moved at that time with the solvent 
(a high grade tuolene and xylene sol- 
vent), and the beveled plaster edge 

Reconstruction of Missing Plaster 

A new lime-sand plaster (again mixed 
to a ratio of 1:4, lime to sand, by 
volume) was chosen to bring base 
plaster up to a level of about 10 
millimeters from the original fin- 
ished surface. This was done in order 
to eliminate excessive undulations on 
the dome and sanctuary walls. This 
part of the plaster reconstruction 
actually related to the presentation 
of the painted plaster more than to 
actual conservation requirements. By 
eliminating major visual distractions, 
such as deep shadows, the remaining 
original materials could be more 
easily seen and appreciated. 


The mission of San Jose de Turaacacori 
has been a national monument since 
1908. It commemorates the Spanish 
colonial period in the American 
Southwest. Father Eusebio Francisco 
Kino, the energetic Jesuit proselytl- 
zer among the Indians in Arizona and 
Sonora, Mexico, first celebrated mass 
at a site he called Tumacacori in 
1691, just a few miles from the 
present site of the mission ruins. 
By 1698, an adobe house, fields of 
wheat, and herds of domesticated 
animals had been established at the 
site of that first mass. After the 
Pima Rebellion of 1751, the village 
was moved to the present site. By 
about 1772, the headquarters for 
missions in the surrounding district 
were moved from nearby Guevavi to 
Tumacacori in response to continuing 
Apache raids. The Jesuits, by this 
time, had been expelled from all 
Spanish lands, and responsibilty for 
missionary work had been given to the 
Franciscans. The historical record 
on the surviving structure is not 
clear, and it is difficult to pinpoint 
exact dates for milestones in its de- 

velopment. Construction of the pres- 
ent building is believed to have be- 
gun about 1800. It was definitely in 
use by 1820. 

After Mexico won independence from 
Spain in 1821, most of the frontier 
missions were abandoned because of 
the new government's inability and 
lack of interest in providing securi- 
ty from Indian attacks. The cessation 
of governmental financial suport of 
the missions further weakened them. 
The situation continued to deteriorate 
at Tumacacori, until, in 1844, the 
government sold the mission to a 
private citizen. When the mission's 
last Indian communicants left the area 
in 1848, they carried the church's 
furnishings with them to the mission 
of San Xavier del Bac, just a few 
miles south of present day Tucson. 
Some of the statues were returned to 
Tumacacori in 1973. Abandoned, its 
massiveness was the only thing that 
saved the mission from total destruc- 
tion by weather, vandals, and souvenir 
hunters until its designation as a 
national monument in 1908. 

Reattachment of Delaminated Plaster 

Some of the finish plaster had become 
detached from the base plaster as had 
some of the base plaster become de- 
tached from the surface of the adobe 
wall and fired brick dome. In both 
of these cases, a polyvinyl acetate 
emulsion was used as an adhesive to 
reattach the delaminated portions. 
Two important properties of PVA emul- 
sion (limited penetration and rela- 
tively great strength) were desirable 
in this case. The character of PVA's 
to deteriorate under exposure to ul- 
traviolet radiation was not a factor 
since such exposure would not occur 
for this particular area of plaster. 

The first step involved cleaning the 
voids where possible by blowing any 
loose materials out through holes 
already in the plaster or which were 
drilled specifically for that purpose. 
The PVA was then injected into the 
voids. It was necessary at this stage 
to take extreme care in protecting 
the adjacent surfaces from the PVA 
while work was underway. 

The reattachment of large portions of 
plaster was not undertaken. If it is 
done in the future, other techniques, 
perhaps using nylon or epoxy resin 
rods, may prove more appropriate. 

Information Block for Diagram on 
Water Seepage into Dome's Interior 

When a portion of deteriorated plaster 
and brick batt covering was removed 
from the horizontal base of the sanc- 
tuary dome, the source of the moisture 
problem inside the dome became appar- 
ent. The original construction tech- 
nique filled the space between the 
base of the dome and the upper exter- 
ior walls of the sanctuary on all four 
sides with loose earth and cobbles. 
At the time it was uncovered, the 
moisture content of this fill was 
20 to 25 percent by weight. Cracks 
in the covering of the dome allowed 
moisture penetration from above, 
which probably kept the earth fill 
consistently damp throughout the 
year. The cement stucco material 
with its painted surface allowed 
little, if any, upward moisture loss 
through evaporation. Consequently, 
moisture moved to the interior of the 
dome. The old fill was removed and 
replaced with low fired bricks in an 
extremely dry lime mortar. The dome's 
exterior surface was replastered with 
a lime plaster (5 parts lime to 1 
part sand, by volume, with a small 
amount of clay for workability). A 
lime whitewash was then applied over 
the plaster. With the source of the 
troublesome water effectively elimi- 
nated, attention could be concentrated 
on the interior's deteriorated dome 
and wall surfaces. 

Replacement of Putty 

One of the most difficult and time 
consuming aspects of the work was the 
removal of several types of putty 
which had been used previously to fill 
holes and support edges. Because of 
properties totally unlike the sur- 
rounding plaster, the putty was caus- 
ing some deterioration and had to be 
removed. A water-saturated paper 
poultice applied for softening the 
putty was partially successful. The 
poulticing was followed by the removal 
of small portions of the putty with 
dental tools, small knives, and micro- 
spatulas. The work was extremely 
slow, taking one person approximately 
three hours to remove one linear foot 
of putty. (The dome was estimated to 
contain approximately 200 feet of the 
putty). After the putty was removed, 
the holes and edges were rebuilt, 
using the same general edge treatment 
described above. 

The Results 

The conservation of the paint and 
plaster in the sanctuary dome was com- 
pleted during the six-week project. 
The work represents approximately 60 
percent of the total conservation 
work that is needed at Tumacacori, 
and plans to complete the remaining 
40 percent are currently underway. 
The primary goals of preserving the 
historic fabric and the elimination 
of major visual distractions were 
successful. It will be difficult, 
however, for the majority of the 
visitors to Tumacacori to see a dif- 
ference since they cannot directly 
compare the existing conditions with 
those in the dome prior to the work. 
This may be surprising to visitors, 
expecially if they have heard of the 
conservation project before their 
visit. But in making the results of 
this preservation difficult to detect, 
the Park Service, in a very subtle and 
technically sophisticated way, is ful- 
filling its duties to preserve the 
ruins of the mission at Tumacacori 
and to interpret its significance in 
the rich history of the American 
Southwest. The site will continue to 
suggest the glories of the mission's 
past rather than recreating its early 
19th-century appearance. 

Recommended Reading 

Crosby, Anthony. "Tumacacori 

Conservation Report: The Condition 
of the Paint and Plaster and a 
Proposal for Its Treatment." 
Unpublished report. National 
Park Service. Denver, Colorado. 

Gettens, R.J. and Charles R. Steen. 
"Tumacacori Interior." Unpublished 
report. National Park Service. 
Santa Fe. 1949. 








of Cul 


to the 

the mi 

at con 
ic His 
y and 
) , con 


ult ( 





I Cen 

ior s 




), archi- 

from the 
for the 
s, are 
sum wash 
oe of 
dome . 

Gif fords, Gloria Fraser. "Removal 
of the Plaster and Painting from 
Northwest Pendentive of the Sanc- 
tuary of the Church at Tumacacori 
National Monument." Unpublished 
report. National Park Service. 

Tintori , Leonetto. "Scientific As- 
sistance in Practice of Mural Con- 
servation in Italy." Application of 
Science in Examination of Works of 
Art . William J. Young, ed. Pro- 
ceedings o f the Seminar, June 15- 
19, 1970. Boston Museum of Fine 
Arts. 1973. 

Torraca, Giorgio. Porous Building 
Materials — Science for Architec- 
tural Conservation . International 
Center for the Study of the Preser- 
vation and Restoration of Cultural 
Properties. Rome. 1981. 

Sayre , Edward V. "Investigation of 
Italian Frescoes, their Materials, 
Deterioration, and Treatment." 
Application of Science in Examina - 
tion of Works of Art . William J. 
Young, ed. Proceedings of the 
Seminar, June 15-19, 1970. Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts. 1973. 


Sources of Cultural Resources Management Research Information 

Douglas L. Caldwell 

Each year, Park Service personnel and 
researchers under contract to the Ser- 
vice produce many documents (historic 
structure reports, archeological re- 
source studies, historic preservation 
guides, etc.) that constitute an in- 
valuable and irreplaceable source of 
information on the parks' cultural 
resources. This data can be found in 
the parks, the Denver Service Center, 
Harpers Ferry Center, the regional 
and Washington offices, and the four 
archeolgical centers in Tallahassee, 
Lincoln, Albuquerque, and Tucson. 
The following article is offered as 
an aid to the researcher in locating 
information through the Associate 
Director, Cultural Resources Manage- 
ment, Washington. 

National Technical Information Service 

As required by NPS-28, the Service's 
Guideline for Cultural Resources Man- 
agement, the Associate Director, Cul- 
tural Resources Management, enters 
all reports received in Washington 
into the microfiche system maintained 
by the Commerce Department's National 
Technical Information Service (NTIS). 
An up-to-date listing of these entries 
in NTIS is available upon request from 
the Washington CRM staff. Approxi- 
mately 400 titles are currently in 
the system. Prices vary depending 
upon length of the report and whether 
microfiche or paper copies of the 
report are ordered. 

Cultural Resources Repository 

The Cultural Resources Repository is 
a file of more than 7,000 reports and 
other documents relating to Park 
Service cultural properties and arti- 
facts. It is maintained in the Wash- 
ington Office by the staff of the As- 1 
sociate Director, Cultural Resources 
Management. The Repository is open 
to Service personnel. Generally, any 
NPS employee doing research in support 
of Service programs can receive a 
copy of materials from the Repository 
at no cost. 

Contained in the Repository are: 

Archeological Resource Studies 
Historic Structure Reports 
Historic Furnishings Reports 
Historic Resource Studies 
Park Administrative Histories 
Historic Preservation Guides 
Collection Preservation Guides 
History Studies (general) 
Archeological Studies (general) 
Trip Reports 
Photo Files 

Most of the materials dating from 
1974 to the present are also avail- 

able through the Denver Service 
Center. Others may be located in the 
parks, regional offices, or Harpers 
Ferry Center. Some of the older 
reports, however, are found only in 
the Washington Repository (a survey 
by the WAS0 staff has confirmed this 
with some specific titles), and the 
researcher would be wise to double- 
check this source before completing a 
bibliographic search. 

A source of useful information is the 
body of correspondence dating back to 
the 1930's, most of it originating 
from Washington and dealing with prob- 
lems arising in managing cultural 
properties. Some of the memos and 
letters discuss reports that were 
submitted on research; others discuss 
preservation treatments underway at 
the time. Of interest to those 
preparing administrative histories is 
that correspondence written by some 
of the "big names" in early Park 
Service preservation work. Also on 
file are old park folders and mis- 
cellaneous newspaper and magazine 
articles on the parks. 

There is a small body of trip reports, 
(dating from the 1930's to the 
1960 's), that were written by Washing- 
ton office personnel. They contain 
general observations of conditions in 
the parks, and offer recommendations 
for the treatment of cultural re- 
sources, and general evaluations of 
their management. One rare set of 
documents is the Superintendent's 
Reports for Yellowstone Park dating 
from the 1890*s. 

A file of photographs, taken primarily 
by former Chief Historical Architect 
Henry Judd , records many preservation 
treatment projects undertaken through- 
out the Park System. The collection, 
primarily in an 8- by 10-inch black 
and white positive format, numbers be- 
tween 600 to 1,000 prints. A few pre- 
World War II photos showing historic 
structures and historic persons of 
the NPS are also in the collection. 
Availability and format of copies can 
be determined on an individual need 
basis . 

Cultural Resources Management Bibli- 

Underway is the development of a com- 
puterized bibliography of all the re- 
ports contained in the CRM Repository. 
When completed, the bibliography not 
only will list a report found in the 
Repository, but will also cross ref- 
erence it (when applicable) with a 
structure on the List of Classified 
Structures. It will enable research- 
ers to more readily locate needed 

documentation to develop and support 
budget requirements for maintaining 
these significant cultural properties 
in the Park System. While this pro- 
ject has not yet been completed due 
to limitations on budget, personnel, 
and .computer support , some informa- 
tion from the Bibliography is avail- 
able for the interested researcher. 

Requests for information concerning 
1) cultural resources management data 
in the NTIS system, 2) the Cultural 
Resources Repository, and 3) the 
Cultural Resources Repository and 
Management Bibliography should be 
directed to: 

Karen Rehm 

Registrar of Cultural Properties 

Historical Architecture Division (408) 

National Fark Service 

Washington, DC 20240 


Book on the Work of 
Saint-Gaudens is Published 

The Work of Augustus Saint-Gaudens , 
compiled and written by National 
Park Service employee, John H. Dry- 
f hout , has been printed and released 
for sales by the University Press of 
New England. This is the most com- 
plete compendium ever attempted of 
the life and works of Augustus 
Saint-Gaudens. More than 500 illus- 
trations reproduce the cameos, bas- 
reliefs, monumental bronzes, sculp- 
tures, coins and medals forming the 
oeuvre , as well as scenes of the 
artist's life and studios. The 
publication includes information on 
all known versions and editions of 
his work in public and private 

John Wilmerding, Curator of American 
Art and Senior Curator, the National 
Gallery of Art, wrote the foreword. 
Barbara Ras edited and Joyce Kachergis 
designed the book. Copies are avail- 
able for $60.00 each from the Univer- 
sity Press of New England, 3 Lebanon 
Street, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755. 

Publication of the book marks the 
sixtieth anniversary of the public 
opening of the Saint-Gaudens Memorial. 
The extensive buildings, grounds, and 
collections of the sculptor's work in 
Cornish, New Hampshire, were at first 
administered by the Trustees of the 
Saint-Gaudens Memorial — a group of 
individuals interested in letters and 
the fine arts — but have been part of 
the National Park System since 1964. 

Why Inventory Properties? 

Karen C. Rehm 

A chronic complaint among Park Service 
employees often concerns the mountains 
of paperwork required to carry out 
Service responsibilities. Many times, 
these complaints center on the vari- 
ous surveys, forms, and studies asso- 
ciated with a park unit's cultural 
resources (historic structures, arche- 
ological sites, etc.). And as much 
as we may wish away this workload, it 
will not disappear, because the Park 
Service's role in preserving cultural 
resources in natural and recreation 
units as well as in the cultural areas 
is required by law. Much of the Serv- 
ice's present efforts center on inven- 
torying its historic properties (e.g., 
the List of Classified Structures), in 
addition to maintaining the National 
Historic Landmarks listing, the 
National Register of Historic Places, 
and developing information for U.S. 
nominations to the World Heritage 
List. While inventorying is an es- 
sential element in good planning and 
management, it is also a legal re- 
quirement of the Historic Sites Act 
of 1935, the 1966 National Historic 
Preservation Act and its 1980 Amend- 
ments. It is because of this legis- 
lation that the Department of the 
Interior, specifically the Park 
Service, has become the Federal 
government's leading advocate for 
cultural resources preservation. 

Prior to the Historic Sites Act of 
1935, the Antiquities Act of 1906 set 
aside as National Monuments "...his- 
toric landmarks, historic and prehis- 
toric structures, and other objects 
of historic or scientific interest 
that are situated upon lands owned or 
controlled by the government of the 
United States...." The actual inven- 
torying of these "landmarks" and 
"structures," however, was not re- 
quired until the 1935 Act, which 
authorized the Interior Secretary to 
"make a survey of historic and arche- 
ological sites, buildings, and ob- 
jects for the purpose of determining 
which possess exceptional value as 
commemorating or illustrating the 
history of the United States" and to 
"...erect and maintain tablets to 
mark or commemorate historic or pre- 
historic places and events of national 
historical or archeological signifi- 
cance...." Ironically, the term 
"historic landmark" did not appear in 
this act, and yet this legislation 
marks the beginning of the National 
Historic Landmark program. The sites 
surveyed were considered as having 

national significance, thereby quali- 
fying them for inclusion into the 
National Park System. The 1935 Act 
also gave status to the Historic 
American Buildings Survey (a key 
factor in the restoration of many of 
the nation's historic buildings, and 
in documenting many of those struc- 
tures which have since been destroyed 
or allowed to fall to ruin). The 
Landmark program was revived in the 
late 1950's, and around 1960, began 
studying and listing National Historic 
Landmarks on a thematic basis. Struc- 
tures or districts must illustrate a 
major theme in American history and 
meet three general criteria to be 

National significance in an im- 
portant field of American history, 
architecture, or archeology; 

Association with individuals and 
events important to American his- 
tory, architecture, or archeology; 

Possession of integrity of 
materials and significance. 

Studies of proposed National Historic 
Landmarks are reviewed semiannually 
by the National Park Advisory Board 
for recommendations to the Secretary 
of the Interior. National Historic 
Landmark designation has played a 
significant role in the preservation 
of cultural resources, such as the 
Cape May Historic District. Present- 
ly, there are 1,575 landmarks. 

The survey process identified many 
properties which had historical value 
not at the national level, but which 
nevertheless warranted recognition 
and some degree of protection. The 
National Historic Preservation Act 
of 1966 provided this protection. 
In the Act, the "Secretary of the 
Interior is authorized .. .to expand 
and maintain a national register of 
districts, sites, buildings, struc- 
tures, and objects significant in 
American history, architecture, 
archeology, and culture, hereinafter 
referred to as the National Register 
...." This National Register, actual- 
ly the National Register of Historic 
Places (NRHP), incorporated all pre- 
viously designated National Historic 
Landmarks and all historic units of 
the National Park System, including 
the various military parks and those 
national monuments authorized for 

archeological or historical signifi- 
cance. The only unit classified as 
national park entered on the NRHP wa 
Mesa Verde National Park, Colorado. 

States were given grants to expand 
their historic preservation programs 
and the National Register soon added 
properties with state and local sig- 
nificance. Then as now, documenta- 
tion required on the nomination form 
included description, significance, 
boundaries, photographs, and maps. 
Federal agencies still confer with 
State Historic Preservation Officers 
on the eligibility of the resources 
and submit the nominations to Nation 
Park Service personnel for inclusion 
on the NRHP. The Park Service must 
also document those properties which 
were automatically listed and nomi- 
nate the cultural resources within 
natural and recreation areas. To 
date, the Service has approximately 
675 listings and 75 determinations o: 
eligibility on the NRHP. A park, in 
assessing the merits of nominating 
structures (which vary from 19th-cen- 
tury privies to the Old Faithful Inn 
to the National Register of Historic 
Places, uses a Servicewide, systemat 
inventory — the List of Classified 
Structures (LCS). 

The LCS is defined in NPS-28 (the 
Park Service Guideline for managing 
cultural resources) as "an inventory 
of all above-grade historic and pre- 
historic structures that have archeo 
logical, historical, architectural, 
engineering, or cultural value and i 
which the Service has or will acquir 
any legal interests." Not all of th 
structures on the LCS qualify for 
the National Register (NRHP). This 
inventory is intended to assist park 
managers in planning and programming 
as well as in recognizing those stru 
tures which do have historical sig- 
nificance . 

Over time, historic structures may 
lose their integrity and be removed 
from the NRHP. The List of Classifie 
Structures, however, will continue t 
list those structures even if they 
are demolished or destroyed. This 
special listing will retain the phys 
ical description and management info 
raation as a reference for future pari 
managers. Presently, the 10,000+ 
structures on the LCS include monu- 
ments, historic roads, walls, and 
ships, as well as buildings. 

In 1980, the Congress amended the 
National Historic Preservation Act 
by: adding engineering as a category 
of significance; strengthening the 
emphasis of the Federal government's 
role in historic preservation, more 
specifically defining the terms 
"National Register of Historic Places" 
and "National Historic Landmark.;" and 
authorizing the leasing of Federal 
historic properties. In addition, 
Title IV of the Act states that, 
"The Secretary of the Interior shall 
direct and coordinate United States 
participation in the Convention Con- 
cerning the Protection of the World 
Cultural and Natural Heritage... 
shall periodically nominate proper- 
ties he determines are of inter- 
national significance to the World 
Heritage Committee on behalf of the 
United States...." Thus, the in- 
ventorying of cultural properties 
reached a world level with this 

The first properties were described 
on the World Heritage List in 1978. 
Only properties demonstrating inter- 
national significance qualify. The 
United States had three cultural list- 
ings as of October 1982. They are 
Mesa Verde and Yellowstone National 
Parks, and Independence National 
Historical Park. The World Heritage 
List differs from the others discussed 
in this article in that it includes 
natural areas as well as cultural as- 
sets (Yellowstone qualifies under both 

cultural and natural, for example). 
The National Park Service serves as 
the secretariat to the Interagency 
Committee which reviews and selects 
U.S. nominations to the State Depart- 
ment. The State Department then 
transmits these selections through 
UNESCO where a 25-nation World Heri- 
tage Committee makes the final deci- 
sion. There are 62 nations plus the 
United States involved in this world- 
wide recognition of our global cul- 
tural and natural resources. 

The preservation of cultural resources 
has come a long way since passage of 
the 1906 Antiquities Act. The docu- 
mentation for the inventories which 
personnel in the Park Service maintain 
can be lengthy and tedious to prepare, 
but it is necessary if the Service is 
to properly record and understand the 
resources it has been entrusted to 

In the long run, all these housekeep- 
ing chores pay off. The information 
they can contain, if we conscientious- 
ly carry out our responsibilities, 
will result in good preservation 
programs in the parks, because all 
these various inventories interact 
with each other. For example, the 
LCS contains all the historic struc- 
tures in the National Park System in 
which the Service has or may have a 
legal interest. Many of these proper- 
ties meet the criteria for the NRHP, 
and are nominated as such, or are in- 

cluded within historical units which 
are automatically placed on the NRHP. 
Structures which are determined to be 
nationally significant by the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, may qualify as 
National Historic Landmarks as did 
National Historic Sites prior to 
establishment by the Congress. Na- 
tionally significant properties may 
qualify for the World Heritage List 
and will be considered for nomination. 
An example of such intricate inter- 
meshing can be found in the Independ- 
ence National Historical Park proper- 
ty. All of the structures except 
Carpenter Hall are on the LCS. The 
entire unit was listed on the NRHP as 
a historical unit of the National 
Park System, and the Independence 
Square portion is one of three NPS 
listings on the World Heritage List. 

So, the next time the temptation 
arises to ignore doing needed docu- 
mentation, do not give in to it. 
Future funds and personnel required 
to preserve, interpret, and provide 
the recognition appropriate to a 
resource's significance will depend 
ultimately on how thoroughly Service 
personnel do their homework. 


The author is the Registrar of Cul- 
tural Properties, Cultural Resources 
Management, Washington Office. 

in Progress 

Questions on the status of any of the 
research projects listed below should 
be addressed to the appropriate Wash- 
ington office division of the National 
Park Service. Any unit of the Service 
wishing to publicize ongoing research 
in the CRM BULLETIN should send no- 
tices and abstracts to the Editor. 

Reports on completed research will be 
placed by the Associate Director, 
Cultural Resources Management, in the 
microfiche system maintained by the 
National Technical Information Serv- 
ice. Microfiche or paper copies made 
from the fiche can then be purchased 
directly from NTIS. 

Outdoor Monuments Survey . Historic 
Architecture Division, WASO. First 

year of a two-year study to survey 
the outdoor monuments in NPS care, 
the project will propose standards 
for maintenance and guidelines for 
determining the appearance to be 

Preservation Environment Study. Mid- 
Atlantic Regional Office; Independ- 
ence National Historical Park; Cura- 
torial Services Division, WASO; 
Historic Architecture Division, WASO. 
Literature search and monitoring at 
Independence Hall to develop method- 
ology for determining appropriate 
level of environmental control in 
historic structures housing museum 

Paint Investigation Technology Study . 
North Atlantic Historic Preservation 
Center; National Capital Region; 
Historic Architecture Division, WASO. 
Multi-year study to advance develop- 
ment of paint investigation technol- 
ogy using the exterior walls of the 
White House as a case study. 

Roads and Parkways Theme Catalog . 
Historic Architecture Division, WASO. 
Research for an annotated catalog of 

culturally significant Park Service 
designed roads and parkways. 

Mortars, Plasters, and Architectural 
Finishes in 19th-century Spanish 
Buildings in the Caribbean . Southeast 
Regional Office. Research involves 
the compilation and analysis of 
specifications by Spanish Colonial 
engineers and architects for mortars, 
plasters, and finishes used in public 
buildings. The findings will be 
tested, as far as possible, by field 
sampling of studied structures for 
which specifications and laboratory 
analyses exist. 

Testing of Types of Photographic En - 
closures and Mat Boards . Curatorial 
Services Division, WASO; and the 
Rochester Institute of Technology. 
This study will test the effects of 
twelve types of photographic enclo- 
sures and mat boards on black and 
white negative film and on albumen 
prints. Current NPS supply stocks 
will be checked as a step toward 
Servicewide recommendations for 
enclosures used in preserving photo- 
graphic materials. Results will be 
available in the summer of 1983. CRM 


Chief Curator Ann Hitchcock and 
Gordon Gay, Registrar of the National 
Catalog, are ex officio members. 

One of the most pressing concerns 
regarding curatorial matters is the 
Service's lack of catalog records 
and accountability for 90 percent of 
its museum objects. Currently, there 
is a backlog of more than 9,000,000 
objects that n«ed to be inventoried 
in the National Catalog. 

The major objective of the Committee 
is the revision of National Catalog 
policy and procedures in order to 
expedite the cataloging process and 
achieve Servicewide accountability 
for museum objects. At present, an 
average of 20,000 records for museum 
objects is completed each year. At 
this rate, 400 years would be needed 
to complete the estimated backlog. 
Clearly, more effective procedures, 
accompanied by the recognition of 
cataloging as a high priority, are 

In its first meeting, the Steering 
Committee addressed three major is- 
sues: 1) streamlined cataloging; 2) 
lot cataloging; and 3) the classifi- 
cation system. The Committee recom- 
mended nine specific modifications to 
National Catalog policy and procedures 
specific to the disciplines of histo- 
ry, ethnology, archeology, and natural 
history. In addition, the group iden- 
tified 14 issues that must be re- 
solved by its subcommittees. Both 
the recommendations of the Committee 
and its subcommittees will then be 
incorporated in a draft cataloging 

manual that will be presented to the 
field for review. The system will be 
simultaneously tested in ten to twelve 
parks. Full implementation of the 
system is expected to begin in FY 84. 

The issues and recommendations are 
summarized below. 

Issue: Streamlined Cataloging — The 
procedure by which an object may be 
inventoried in the National Catalog 
needs to be simplified. 

Recommendation : Nine simple data 
elements, called Registration Data 
(e.g., catalog number, object name, 
location), were identified as manda- 
tory to establish accountability for 
each museum object in the National 

This recommendation significantly re- 
duces the number of data elements and 
the amount of verbal description pre- 
sently required to list an object in 
the National Catalog, thus expediting 
the inventory process. Additional 
catalog documentation, called Catalog 
Data, was identified as optional 
(e.g., description, condition, meas- 
urements). The catalog card (Form 
10-254) will be revised to accommodate 
the changes. 

Issue: Lot Cataloging — The use of 
lot cataloging, a procedure that per- 
mits a group of similar objects to be 
recorded on one catalog record, would 
expedite cataloging if applied to all 
types of collections. 

Recommendation: The Committee agreed 
that all disciplines may use lot cata- 
loging. The subcommmit tees must de- 
cide exactly how this procedure is to 
be handled for each discipline. 

Issue: Classification System — The 
current classification system (for 
cultural objects), Nomenclature by 
Robert Chenhall, has been severely 
criticized for its inapplicability to 
archeology and ethnology. Modifica- 
tions to the natural history system 
have also been requested. 

Recommendation : The object classifi- 
cation system for history will con- 
tinue to be based on Nomenclature . 
The subcommittees will develop new or 
revised classification systems for 
archeology, ethnology, and natural 

The recommendations of the subcommit- 
tees are expected to be incorporated 
in the cataloging manual that will be 
available for review in August of 
1983. The Steering Committee antici- 
pates that its recommendations, if 
accepted, will contribute signifi- 
cantly to increasing the rate at 
which museum objects are recorded in 
the National Catalog. However, the 
ultimate success of the program de- 
pends on the parks and other Service 
repositories placing a high priority, 
in terms of funding and staffing, on 
achieving accountability for museum 
objects. To this end, the Steering 
Committee has made several recommen- 
dations to the Director requesting 
that this accelerated cataloging pro- 
gram be incorporated into regional 
and park planning and budgeting docu- 
ments beginning in FY 84. 


The author is Chief Curator of the 
National Park Service. 

GPO 901-709 


September 1982 

Published quarterly by the Associate Director, 
Cultural Resources, in the interest of promoting 
and maintaining high standards in the management 
of those cultural resources entrusted to the National 
Park Service's care by the American people. 

Editor: Douglas L. Caldwell 
Assistant Editor: Mary V. Maruca 
Cultural Resources, Washington, D.C. 

Vol. 5,Nos. 1-3 
(released Feb. 1983) 


Tumacacori Project 1 

New Steering Committee 1 

CRM Info Sources 5 

Saint Gaudens Book 

Published 5 

Why Inventory Properties? 6 

Research In Progress 7 

Cultural Resources 

National Park Service 

U.S. Department of the Interior 

Washington, DC 20240 

Postage and Fees Paid 

U.S. Department of the Interior